Evidence Base

There is a growing evidence base for the effectiveness of the eoSurgical training tools, for both basic and advanced skills training, from multiple groups around the world.   



Competency assessment tool for laparoscopic suturing: development and reliability evaluation.  IJgosse WM, Leijte E, Ganni S, et al. Surg Endosc. 2020;34(7):2947-2953. doi:10.1007/s00464-019-07077-2


Face, Content, and Construct Validity of the Take-Home EoSim Augmented Reality Laparoscopy Simulator for Basic Laparoscopic Tasks. Arts EEA, Leijte E, Witteman BPL, Jakimowicz JJ, Verhoeven B, Botden SMBI. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2019;29(11):1419-1426. doi:10.1089/lap.2019.0070 

Construct, content and face validity of the eoSim laparoscopic simulator on advanced suturing tasks. Leijte E, Arts E, Witteman B, Jakimowicz J, De Blaauw I, Botden S. Surg Endosc. 2019;33(11):3635-3643. doi:10.1007/s00464-018-06652-3

Construct validity of eoSim - a low-cost and portable laparoscopic simulator.
Mansoor SM, Våpenstad C, Mårvik R, Glomsaker T, Bliksøen M. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2019;1-8. doi:10.1080/13645706.2019.1638411

Barriers and facilitators to deliberate practice using take-home laparoscopic simulators. Blackhall VI, Cleland J, Wilson P, Moug SJ, Walker KG. Surg Endosc. 2019;33(9):2951-2959. doi:10.1007/s00464-018-6599-9

Robot assisted versus laparoscopic suturing learning curve in a simulated setting.  Leijte E, de Blaauw I, Van Workum F, Rosman C, Botden S. Surg Endosc. 2019;10.1007/s00464-019-07263-2. doi:10.1007/s00464-019-07263-2


A systematic review of low-cost laparoscopic simulators. Li MM, George J. Surg Endosc. 2017;31(1):38-48. doi:10.1007/s00464-016-4953-32016


Incentivising practice with take-home laparoscopic simulators in two UK Core Surgical Training programmes
Nicol LGWalker KGCleland J, Partridge RW, Moug SJ. On behalf of the Scottish Surgical Simulation Collaborative, including Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, NHS Education for Scotland. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning; BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning 2016; 2:112-117.

The LEAP Gesture Interface Device and Take-Home Laparoscopic Simulators: A Study of Construct and Concurrent Validity. Partridge RW, Brown FS, Brennan PM, Hennessey IAM, Hughes MA. Surgical Innovation 2016, Vol. 23(1) 70–77. 

Does a 3D Image Improve Laparoscopic Motor Skills? Folaranmi SE, Partridge RW, Brennan PM, Hennessey IAM. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. August 2016, 26(8): 671-673.


Motion Analysis–Based Skills Training and Assessment in Pediatric Laparoscopy: Construct, Concurrent, and Content Validity for the eoSim Simulator. Retrosi G, Cundy T, Haddad M, Clarke S.  Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. 2015 Aug 10.

Effect of Warm-up Exercises on Laparoscopic Trainer: Improvement of Operator Smoothness. Navaneethan N, Hewett P. World J Lap Surg 2015; 8(1): 21-25. 

There is a worldwide shortfall of simulation platforms for minimally invasive surgery. Partridge RW, Hughes MA, Brennan PM, Hennessey IAM. Journal of Surgical Simulation (2015) 2, 12–17.


Accessible Laparoscopic Instrument Tracking (“InsTrac”): Construct Validity in a Take-Home Box Simulator.  Partridge RW, Hughes MA, Brennan PM, Hennessey IAM. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. 2014 Jul 31;24(8):578–83.

A comparative study of surgical skills assessment in a physical laparoscopic simulator using wireless inertial sensors. Evans RL, Partridge RW, Arvind DK. Proceedings of the Wireless Health 2014, National Institutes of Health, ACM, NY, USA,  Article 10, pages 1-8. 

Surgical training is undermined by inadequate provision of laparoscopic surgical simulators. Brennan P, Loan JM, Hennessey IA Hughes M, Partridge RW.  Bull R Coll Surg Engl 2014 Oct 1;96(9):304–7.

The business of innovation in surgery: tenacity is the key. Brown F. Student BMJ. 2014;22:g5569

Validating the Use of Smartphone-Based Accelerometers for Performance Assessment in a Simulated Neurosurgical Task. Ang WJ, Hopkins ME, Brennan PM, Partridge R, Hennessey I, Hughes MA. Neurosurgery 2014 Mar;10:57–65.

Effect of Visual Display Location on Human Performance in Simulated Laparoscopic Tasks. Hernandez R, Travascio F, Onar-Thomas A and Asfour S. J Ergonomics 2014. 4:134.


Construct, Concurrent, and Content Validity of the eoSim Laparoscopic Simulator. Hennessey IAM, Hewett P. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. 2013 Oct;23(10):855-60.

Incorporating touch screen technology into minimal access simulation. Hennessey IAM, Brennan P, Hughes MA, Partridge RW. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech Part B: Videoscopy. Jan 2013.

Pre-operative warm up: are we missing an opportunity to improve performance? Loan JJM, Hughes MA. Int J Surg. 2013;11(5):434.

An app to make a surgeon. Ferns F. Student BMJ, 10.1136/sbmj.f3361. June 2013.


Construct, Concurrent and Content validity for the eoSim® Laparoscopic Simulator adapted for Paediatric Laparoscopic Surgery.  Giuseppe Retrosi, Thomas P Cundy, Munther J Haddad, Simon A Clarke. International Pediatric Endosurgery Group Annual Congress for Endosurgery in Children. April 14-18th 2015.

One small step for eoSim, one giant LEAP for surgery? A exploration of the application of the LEAP motion controller in simulated MIS surgery. Brown F, Partridge RW. Scottish Society of Paediatric Surgeons meeting, Edinburgh, 1st November 2014. (Winner: Best Presentation Award).

Does peer-to-peer comparison improve skills acquisition during take-home surgical simulator training? Deehan G, Struthers J, Partridge RW. AMEE, Milan, 2014.

A Gesture Interface Environment to Train and Prepare Surgeons. Hughes MA. Medicine 2.0: Social Media, Mobile Apps, and Internet/Web 2.0 in Health, Medicine and Biomedical Research. London, UK. 23rd September 2013.

Validating the Use of Smartphone-based Accelerometers for Performance Assessment in a Simulated Neurosurgical Task. Ang WJ, Hopkins ME, Brennan PM, Partridge R, Hennessey I, Hughes MA. World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Congress, South Korea, 8-13th September 2013.

How starting a company can get your clinical innovation off the ground. Hughes MA, Brennan PM, Partridge R. Norwich Medical Technology and Innovation Symposium, UEA, Norwich, 20th April 2013.